To correlate these results with pyrethroid molecular resistance mechanisms, DNA from mosquitoes of each population were used to detect V1016I and F1534C mutations. The allelic frequency of Ile1,016 varied from 0.43 to 0.90 in the populations studied. In contrast, sleeping under a holed bed net in the location where susceptible mosquitoes were common decreased the odds of being bitten by 66% and the majority of mosquitoes were killed by the treatment. At present there are 40 malaria‐endemic countries reporting resistance to insecticides, most to pyrethroids (WHO Global Malaria Programme 2012).
Bordeaux spray 3 – 10 times recommended for nursery trees to prevent scab but large orchard trees considered unreachable. Plant resistant trees like Stuart, Schley and Frotscher. Early harvest, sanitation, burning and Persian insect powder used for insect control. 1930 to 1940